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HTML Documents



An HTML Document is a simple ASCII file. Apart from the text to be displayed, it contains links to images, links to other documents and formatting instructions, which are programmed using HTML ``tags''. Tags are characterized by brackets. Between the opening ``<'' and closing ``>'' bracket proper HTML code, consisting of a single keyword and optionally additional commands, is expected. HTML is not case sensitive. Usually there is an opening and a closing tag (e.g. <h1>HTML Documents</h1>), the latter being characterized by a slash. Between these two parts the tag takes effect. In our example h1 is the keyword for a heading of first order (very big) and the text between the opening and closing tag is used for the heading.

Tags can also be nested like <h1><i>HTML</i> Documents</h1>, which prints ``HTML'' in italic letters and the whole expression as a big heading. There are also standalone tags like <hr>, which draws a horizontal rule.

There are many books and Web sites providing quick introductions or complete descriptions of the latest HTML standard and extensions like Java, JavaScript, ActiveX or cgi-scripts. At NCSA or at the University of Kansas quick introductions and links to other courses and tutorials can be found. For German speaking Web publishers there is a highly recommended book by Stefan Münz, which is also fully available on the Web.

Structure of an HTML Document

Any HTML Document is embraced by <html> ...</html>. Inside this mandatory tag there are two main parts. First, the head denoted by <head> ...</head> and secondly the body denoted by <body> ...</body>. The head usually contains the title (<title> ...</title>) which appears in the title bar of the browser and some more information about the author, keywords or a short description. Only the text in the body section will be displayed by the browser. Figure 3 shows the HTML code of a simple document and figure 4 how it is rendered by Netscape Navigator 3.01 for Linux.

Umlauts and other special characters have to be encoded with special commands. The reason being that only the first 128 characters of the standard ISO 8859-1 (ISO Latin-1) character set required by HTML are identical with the ASCII character set used on many computer platforms. Moreover all characters, which have a special meaning in HTML (e.g. <, >, &, "), have to be replaced by their special commands. The following table gives some commonly used examples.

Table 2: Encoding of special characters
HTML Code Character
&Agrave; À
&Aacute; Á
&Atilde; Ã
&Auml; Ä
&Aring; Å
&Ouml; Ö
&Uuml; Ü
&auml; ä
&agrave; à
&ouml; ö
&uuml; ü
&szlig; ß
&lt; <
&gt; >
&amp; &
&quot; "

Sample Document


    CONTENT="magnetism, magnets, micromagnetism, simulation">
  <TITLE> Research Group J Fidler </TITLE>

      <CENTER><A HREF="sfl2film.gif"><IMG SRC="m4.gif"></A></CENTER>
          Institut f&uuml;r Angewandte und Technische Physik<BR>
          Vienna University of Technology
      <CENTER><H1>Research Group J Fidler</H1></CENTER>
      <CENTER><H3>Magnetic Materials and Micromagnetism</H3></CENTER>
      <IMG SRC="mnalc_1.gif" HEIGHT=170 WIDTH=80>

<HR WIDTH="100%">
This is the homepage of
Research Group J Fidler<BR>
email <A HREF="mailto:fidler (at)">fidler (at)</A>

<HR WIDTH="100%">
We are a research group at the <A HREF="">Vienna
University of Technology</A> concentrating on the development of new
magnetic materials and to solve micromagnetic problems. Experimental
facilities include powdermetallurgical and electron microscopy laboratories.


Figure 4: Rendered sample document
\includegraphics [scale=0.6]{}


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Werner Scholz